School of Business
MGMT550 Information Technology and Business Strategy
Changing the mindset
From personnel management to human resource management
Human resources management
Human resource management involves all management decisions and
actions that affect the nature of the relationship between the
organisation and employees--its human resources.
Beer et al., Harvard Business School
The emergence of HRM
- increasing international competition
- increasing size and complexity of organisations
- slower growth in traditional economic sectors
- greater government involvement
- increasing education of workforce
- more concern for career and life satisfaction
- changes in workforce profile (age, sex & skills)
Human resource management
- influence of people
- human resource flow
- reward systems
- work systems
The benefits of good HRM
To manage is to lead, and to lead others requires that one enlist
the emotions of others to share a vision as their own
Henry Boettinger, Formerly, Director of Corporate Planning, AT&T
People cannot be managed. Inventories can be managed, but people
must be led.
H Ross Perot, Founder, Electronic Data Systems
Making it happen means involving the hearts and minds of those
who have to execute and deliver. It cannot be said often enough
that these are not the people at the top of the organisations,
but those at the bottom.
Sir John Harvey-Jones, Making it Happen
Nowadays we are all leaders
- identify change
- develop change
- encourage change
- welcome change
When you want to change people you need courageous patience.
James I Owen, Deputy Commissioner, Internal Revenue Service
The manager as consultant
- problem finder
- problem solver
Barriers to understanding
- cultural assumptions
- personal defensive filters and biases
- expectations based on previous experiences
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
In victory vengeance, In defeat malice.
- increasingly the focus of work is in teams
- a flexible way to solve problems
- easily wound up when over
- requires high levels of commitment
- individuals may work in many teams
A vision of a new organisaton
- radical decentralisation
- intense interdependence
- demanding expectations
- transparent performance standards
- distributed leadership
- breaking down of boundaries
- networking and reciprocity
The knowledge platform
Knowledge that exists in an organisation that can be used to create
K Hugh Macdonald, ex-ICL
Applications of intellectual capital
If you don't keep your intellectual capital refreshed it will
- identify it
- utilise it
- maintain it
A pattern of basic assumptions - invented, discovered by a given
group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation
and internal integration - that has worked well enough to be considered
valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct
way to perceive, think, and feel in relations to those problems.
Ed Schein, Organisational Culture and Leadership
Levels of organisational culture
- artifacts and creations
- visible and audible patterns of behaviour
- testable in physical environment
- testable only by social consensus
- basic assumptions
- relationship to environment
- nature of reality, time and space
- nature of human nature
- nature of human relationships
An appropriate organisational culture can compensate for the failings
of the structure and processes
- principle of simplicity
- principle of autonomy
- principle of governance by culture
a planned programme across the organisation to evaluate and improve
the processes and structures by which the organisation operates
Guidelines in user involvement
- senior management should initiate the process
- functional management should immediately follow senior management
- IT professional should be involved
- to begin technical discussions
- to brief management on development in applications
- Users should be included sufficiently early to build trust
- to build trust
- but only once management are certain what they are doing
- before users are brought in management should be able to answer
- are we ready to expand the group?
- are we clear on the objectives?
- do we have the correct technological perspectives?
- have we considered organisational issues?
Readings in HRM
- Tom Peters "A Passion for Excellence" & "In
Search of Excellence"
- Shoshana Zuboff "In the Age of the Smart Machine"
- Rosabeth Moss Kanter "The Change Masters & When Giants
Learn to Dance"
- Ed Schein "Process consultancy" "Organisational
Culture and Leadership"
- James Belasco "Teaching the Elephant to Dance"
Changing the mind set
- HRM is much, much more than personnel management
- we are all leaders
- we must all work in teams
- individuals and organisations must learn
- organisational culture is both a boon and a hindrance
Copyright © Ewan Sutherland, 1995.